Enhanced biocompatibility and antibacterial property of polyurethane materials modified with citric acid and chitosan
- Received: 3 Mar 2016
- Accepted: 19 Apr 2016
- Accepted author version posted online: 22 Apr 2016
BASF has opened its new facilities for the manufacture of Ucrete, a flooring solution, in the company's existing construction chemicals manufacturing plant in the Bukit Raja Industrial Park in Selangor, Malaysia.
With the new plant, the company aims to meet the growing demand for high-quality, durable industrial flooring solutions in the Asia Pacific region.
Claimed to be the first manufacturing hub of its kind in the Asia Pacific region, the new production facilities are capable of producing all four components of the Ucrete polyurethane concrete flooring system.
BASF already has a similar plant in the UK.
BASF Singapore, Malaysia, Myanmar, Cambodia and Laos construction chemicals head Arnold De Silva said: "The new facilities improve our flexibility to better and quicker serve our customers by ensuring a stable supply.
"We can reduce lead times by up to 35% near the place where the product is used."
The company noted that Ucrete is a polyurethane resin technology that provides floors resistance to hostile chemicals, extreme mechanical and thermal conditions, and is used in several applications in the food, beverage, chemical and pharmaceutical industries.
The technology is said to be suitable for various demanding industrial environments, non-tainting and completely serviceable at temperatures up to 120°C at 9mm thickness.
BASF Malaysia managing director Daniel Loh said: "BASF has continuously invested in Malaysia for more than 25 years, making the country an important production hub for BASF to serve customers in the region.
"The opening of the new facilities in Malaysia underlines our strategic commitment and long-term focus on serving our customers in Asia Pacific."
Covestro, a supplier of high-tech polymer materials, has developed a new technology for manufacturing wind turbine rotor blades. The rotor blades are fabricated in a special process from a polyurethane resin and a glass fiber fabric. The company has now received the DNV GL certification for the resin.
The Covestro system is the world's first polyurethane resin to receive this certification. The resin was developed in a close cooperation between the Covestro Wind Competence Center in Denmark and the Polyurethane Research Center in Leverkusen. Covestro tested the polyurethane resin on an industrial scale together with Saertex, a manufacturer of glass fiber and carbon fiber fabrics, and Hübers, a specialist in process engineering. A prototype of a 45-meter-long spar cap recently was fabricated at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Stade, Germany.
The automotive seating systems manufacturer Johnson Controls is bringing the third generation of its reduced-emissions polyurethane foam to market. According to the company, depending on the specification the foam registers up to 90 % fewer VOCs than ten years ago. Johnson Controls says it also has significantly reduced the quantity of odour-generating material impurities and aldehydes to an absolute minimum.
“Our aim is material substitution with low-emission materials suitable for series production, without altering the unique properties of polyurethane foams such as durability and stiffness,” said Ingo Fleischer, group vice president and general manager product group foam at Johnson Controls Automotive Seating. “Ultimately, innovations like our latest low emission foam lead to cleaner and healthier air in the vehicle interior.”
“We continually and systematically examine and test all new materials solutions and technologies on the market in close cooperation with our material supplier. Based on the results, we adapt the production process to maximise the potential of a new material for emission reduction,” Fleischer added. “Foam plays an incremental part for the seat in terms of comfort and gives the seat's cushion and back its shape. Based on an average foam volume of 0.25 m3 (approximately 8.83 ft³) in a car seat, this optimised formulation supports our efforts to contribute to a cleaner and healthier interior environment.”
Taking the lead in research into low-emission foam development is Johnson Controls' Technical Center in Strasbourg, France. Cooperating with the company's Research and Development Centers in Plymouth, MI, USA, and Shanghai, China, the Strasbourg team creates solutions for the global market that exceed the strict emission requirements of global OEMs. Production of the latest low-emission foam takes place at the company's facilities in Europe and China. A third location in the USA is planned.
“Over the years, we have been able to improve not only the foam material but also the production processes, testing methods and our overall expertise,” said Fleischer.
Dr. Luc Goubert of the Belgian Road Research Centre (BRRC) says the premise was to investigate whether the paving formula would reduce road noise, not to develop it as a replacement for traditional asphalt.
"It costs much more than asphalt so you would only use it in places where road noise is an issue and in that case it is cost effective when you consider the cost of noise barriers," he says. "For example, we found in our tests on roads that tire noise was reduced by up to 10 decibels. To effect that change with noise barriers you would have to build them about six metres high which is very expensive."
The BRRC is a non-profit organization involved in the construction, management and operation of road infrastructure in Belgium. Previous research has identified many components of road noise, such as tire vibrations from unbalanced wheels or imperfections in the tire materials, road surface issues, vibrations from the tread types and even resonance in the air-filled space of the tire itself.
The challenge then was to work with established data to formulate a paving material that was elastic but durable.
What the researchers came up with is a "poroelastic" material made from granulated tire rubber, which has the added bonus of being a useful way to recycle used tires. The granules are mixed with stone and then bonded with polyurethane. The key factor is the elasticity which acts to reduce noise, but there is also an issue with durability and that's where the team has focused its efforts.
They dubbed the project PERSUADE — PoroElastic Road SUrface: an innovation to Avoid Damages to the Environment.
Tests were conducted across Europe by paving sections of roads with the material and then measuring the results. Nations included Sweden, Denmark, Poland and Slovakia.
"This is not rubber asphalt," says Goubert. "That has been around for a long, long time. This is without bitumen so it is completely different but has also been around since the 1970s in Sweden."
He says in -40 C conditions in Sweden researchers found the road surface actually offered more friction and traction to tires than traditional asphalt. It also wears differently and reduces dust creation.
Ironically, the research program started when bitumen was probably at its highest price point, with oil costing more than US$100 a barrel in 2011. It has since fallen to below US$30, making the new material even less cost-effective compared to traditional asphalt.
Pricing, however, is cyclical and asphalt is a relatively small cost factor in the traditional asphalt formula. The real driver was noise.
Unlike previous incarnations of asphalt with tire crumb as an extender, there were no issues with surface water creating treacherous conditions or with freezing, Goubert explains.
"The material is porous so it drains away," he says. "In fact, when we did the safety tests for fire we had trouble getting the car to burn. We poured 20 litres of gasoline under the car and normally with asphalt we'd have huge flames within seconds. With this material though it all drained away and we couldn't get it to burn."
Despite those positive findings, the negative results will send the researchers back to their laboratories to find a better way to bind the stone and bind the mix to the sublayer.
"What we found is that the material is not as durable as asphalt and that it tends to start separating with the stones getting loose," he says. "This is a particular problem with lorries (trucks) which really tear it up. One lorry passing is like 20,000 cars."
Different methods of laying the paving down were tried, he says. First it was spread with a traditional roadbuilding machine and then compacted as traditional asphalt would be. This worked but the long-term results showed the top layer delaminated from the substrate. The other method was to create one-metre-by-half-metre slabs with the material bonded to a concrete base with epoxy glue. These "tiles" were then laid onto the road bed.
It worked well enough but it's an awkward and somewhat impractical roadbuilding technique, Goubert says.
Also, he adds, while the butt joint edges of the "tiles" seemed to hold up, there are concerns how they will wear and age over time.
The team has just released its technical reports and executive summaries, having wrapped up the five-year project in August 2015. The next phase will be to investigate which epoxies might work to bond the surface layer to the substrate and also to look at different formulations of polyurethane to better bond the aggregate.
"We have been using commercially available polyurethane but we will have to look at what else is available," says Goubert. "We're also looking at epoxies."
Authors must submit an abstract with request for presentation. Presentations must not exceed 25 minutes in length. A written paper and slide file are also required to become part of PFA's online information library.
The Paper Selection Process
An interconnected structure, which water can easily flow through, is key to creating a highly effective mechanical sponge for clearing oil spills.
These are the findings from scientists at the Istituto Italiano di Technologia (IIT), Italy, in their paper published today, 2nd March 2016, in the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics.
The traditional method of clearing an oil spill, containing it with the use of booms and then 'sucking' the oil from the surface of the water, looks set to be replaced with polyurethane foams that can sponge the oil directly out of the water.
"We wanted to understand what the key features of such foams are, and how they can affect their performance" explains Dr Javier Pinto, author of the paper. "Particularly whether it was necessary to modify the surface chemistry, or if you could reach really good performance by simply choosing foams with the right structural parameters."
The experimental and theoretical study shows that with highly interconnected open porous structures, and pore sizes below 500 micrometres, it is possible to reach absorption capacities as high as 30 grams of oil per gram of polyurethane.
Chemical functionalization of the porous structure did not appear to enhance the oil absorption efficiency, but did significantly contribute to the selectivity of the process.
"It came as a surprise that there is an absence of considerations of the structure or even characterization of the foams employed in several previous studies" continues Pinto. "Understanding this is key to evaluating proposed treatments and coatings, and their effectiveness."
Dr Pinto believes that due to the simplicity of the polyurethane foam they propose, commercialisation of the materials for oil spill remediation could happen very soon.
"Our next steps are to develop composite materials for wider water remediation" concludes Pinto. "These could be low environmental impact - using materials derived from waste - and have biodegradable or biocompatible properties."
"We'll explore the use of these systems not only for clearing oil spills, but also other contaminants such as heavy metals or pesticides."
For further information, a full draft of the journal paper, or to talk with one of the researchers, contact IOP Senior Press Officer, Steve Pritchard: Tel: 0117 930 1032 E-mail: email@example.com. For more information on how to use the embargoed material above, please refer to our embargo policy.
The paper can be found here: http://ioppublishing.
Breakthrough Formulation Creates New Spray Foam Insulation Category
Mesa, Arizona (PRWEB) February 20, 2016
SWD Urethane, a spray polyurethane foam (SPF) manufacturer in the southwestern United States, has announced the release of their new Quik Shield 108 Ultra-Low Density SPF, creating a revolutionary new category of open-cell spray foam insulation.
Quik-Shield 108 is the first Ultra-Low Density product ever, at a nominal 0.4 lbs./cu. ft. This gives a 25% greater yield over traditional 0.5 lbs./cu. ft. open-cell spray foam. Greater yield significantly reduces material cost for projects, allowing contractors to be more competitive in bids.Quik-Shield 108 bridges the price gap between superior performing spray foam and the cheaper traditional insulation products.
Quik-Shield 108 also features:
"We're really excited about Quik-Shield 108 and the effects it will have for spray foam contractors and applicators," quoted Jim Perkins, President of SWD Urethane. "It's always been our goal to make spraying foam easier for applicators and to make jobsites safer and more efficient. No other product on the market makes such huge strides in application ease and job site efficiency like Quik-Shield 108 does—the unique single pass full fill of the wall cavity and spraying a roof deck from 15 feet away. It will transform the way spray foam contractors stage and complete jobs."
SWD Urethane is a leading supplier of spray polyurethane foam, manufacturing over 100 types of polyurethane foams and polyurea coatings. From 2014 – 2016, SWD has helped its contractors win 26 out of 60 SPFA Industry Excellence Awards. SWD has been in business since 1972, and they are one of the fastest-growing spray foam suppliers in the industry. SWD president, Jim Perkins, is also the chairman of the Spray Foam Coalition, a key trade organization for spray foam suppliers. For more information, contact Alan Annis, Marketing Director, at 800-828-1394 or marketing(at)swdurethane(dot)com.
Feb 6, 2016 | By Benedict
Instructables user Whitney Potter has published a tutorial for making customized climbing holds with a 3D printer. Following Potter’s method, makers can print their own molds in thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) before filling them with polyurethane resin to create the finished hold.
Climbing is a great way to exercise whilst having fun. Kids and adults alike can experience the thrill of climbing, be it on natural rock faces, at designated gym climbing walls, or—with the help of 3D printing—in their own back yard. For those who enjoy the rocky ascent but who do not live close to climbing facilities, a homemade climbing wall can provide hours of fun and contribute to a healthy lifestyle. What’s more, with Potter’s Instructables guide, wannabe climbers can create their own unique climbing holds with the help of a 3D printer and a handful of easy-to-source materials.
Over the past few weeks, Potter’s DIY projects have shown up on our 3D printing radar at an impressive frequency. Demonstrating his abilities across a range of applications, the builder recently published an Instructables guide for building an Arduino-powered desktop 3D scanner for just $50. Now, the Instructables Renaissance man has channeled his technical expertise into a project for his kids (mostly). Wanting to build those kids (and himself) a fun and unique climbing wall, Potter was never going to use store-bought equipment. However, determining the best method of construction caused the DIY expert some head-scratching.
Potter’s initial plan was to 3D print a set of climbing holds, but that idea was soon ruled out. “3D printed parts can be weak, especially when stressed across the layer lines,” the maker explains. “They can be made stronger by making them denser up to the point that they are 100% solid, but this adds dramatically to the cost and print time. A fist sized climbing hold printed at 100% infill would take between 12 and 24 hours to print.”
This minor obstacle did not deter the determined Potter. With a clear goal in mind and a perfectly good 3D printer to hand, the maker simply had to adjust his footing and reach in a different direction. After conducting a bit of research into professional methods of climbing hold manufacturing, Potter learned that holds are typically made from polyurethane resin, cast in a silicone rubber mold, itself shaped by a hand-carved or CNC-milled master.
Potter considered 3D printing a master, but realized he could simply skip this step and 3D print the mold in thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), an extremely flexible 3D printing filament. Although less durable and easy-to-use than silicone, the TPU mold offers several advantages: “In a couple of hours I can print a mold that will produce dozens of copies of a hold,” Potter explains. “The cost of the TPU mold is maybe a dollar which is much better than $10-$20 for a silicone mold.”
The design process for the hold mold will be familiar to all makers. Potter recommends using Meshmixer, Blender, or dedicated sculpting program 3dCoat to create a 3D design for each hold. Once the design is complete—and there are no creative restrictions here!—some boolean handiwork is needed to shell out the solid 3D shape. Add a small socket for the bolt head and the 3D mold is ready for the 3D printer.
Regarding 3D printer settings, Potter says: “Print as few shells and as little infill as you can while still having a decent print as this will make it easier to unmold. All of my molds leak a little, but that's okay. The resin seeps into the mold and seals it the first time you use it.”
Although the holds can be cast in high-strength industrial grout, which looks and feels like real stone, the pro option is polyurethane resin. This can be purchased in a two-part formula, which begins to set a minute after the two parts are mixed. To stop the resin sticking to the mold, a quick spray of urethane mold release applied before casting will do the trick—Potter recommends the imaginatively titled “Stoner” brand. With gloves on hands, the resin can be poured into the mold, then easily removed thanks to the mold release spray. After a little sanding, the holds will be ready for use.
There you have it: Your very own set of climbing holds, fully customized and cheaper than readymade alternatives, made with the help of your 3D printer. Get ready to scale some heights!